The terms Laparoscopic surgery, Minimally invasive surgery, Endoscopic surgery and Keyhole surgery – generally mean operations that are done through small holes and are less traumatic than traditional open surgery. Advanced optical and video technology is used to look inside the body through tiny holes. Miniaturization of surgical instruments and totally new (better than laser) forms of energy to cut and seal have made surgery possible through tiny holes. Tiny holes instead of big cuts leads to a dramatic reduction in pain, disability, scars, complications like wound infection and incision hernia after surgery. It has revolutionized how surgery is perceived and performed. Recovery is rapid and one can have food and move around within a day and get back to normal activity in less than a week.
What is Diagnostic Laparoscopy and Surgery? Why is it so important?
Stomach (Abdomen) pain can be due to many reasons and is not easy to diagnose. When Scans, Endoscopy and other tests are unable to identify the cause of stomach (abdomen) pain, looking into the abdomen with a laparoscope often helps in making the diagnosis by visual identification and biopsy. Hence the term Diagnostic Laparoscopy. Once diagnosed the cause can often be eliminated or corrected by Laparoscopic surgery. A common example of this is stomach pain caused by adhesions between organs and structures inside the abdomen. These are best detected and treated (Adhesiolysis) by Laparoscopy. Thus Laparoscopy can be used both as diagnostic test and surgical treatment. It is similarly helpful for various other problems in the abdomen like fluid collections, swellings, injury, cancer staging with palliation.
What is Laparoscopic Surgery done for?
- Diagnosis and biopsy in stomach (abdomen) pain and fluid collection (ascites).
- Gall stones & Gall bladder swelling (Cholecystitis), Bile duct blockage, Liver cysts, pancreatic pseudo cysts, etc.
- Appendicitis (appendix infection).
- Adhesions (of internal organs and structures).
- Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)- Acid reflux (reverse flow of acid from stomach upwards), Hiatus Hernia.
- Removal of endocrine tumors like pheochromocytoma and other adrenal tumors, insulinoma and other neuro-endocine tumors.
- Removal of parts or whole of various organs like adrenal, kidney, ovary, uterus, intestines, stomach, spleen, liver, pancreas.
- Weight loss (Bariatric surgery).
- Achalasia Cardia, Hypertrophic Pyloric stenosis.
- Rectal prolapse.
- Surgical emergencies like Abdominal Trauma, Gut bleeding, perforation (leak), bowel obstruction, ectopic pregnancy.
- Various Urology, Gynecology, Infertility procedures.
In the past, these were possible only by Open Operation and were associated with much pain, suffering, blood loss, prolonged recovery and a big, obvious scar.