Thyroid is a gland situated in the neck. Thyroid gland makes a hormone called ‘thyroxine’. This hormone is very important for growth of the brain especially during the first 3 years of life. It is important for various other metabolic functions.
It is a condition where the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroxine. This condition may be present from birth (congenital hypothyroidism) or may appear later during childhood, adolescence or in adulthood (acquired). Prompt treatment of this condition with thyroxine is very important.
This results as a result of over activity of thyroid gland. This condition is less common in children. Commonly it results from autoimmunity. Treatment with drugs may be effective in some children. Others may require surgery or radioiodine ablation.
Other thyroid gland disorders include goitre and thyroid malignancies (rare in children).